Camera Calibration Theory

Single Camera Model

We assume the camera adheres to the “pin-hole” model. With this model, there are certain quantities we need to find to characterize the “intrinsics” of the system:

  1. position of image center
  2. focal length
  3. scaling factors to convert height and width of pixels to physical units
  4. lens distortion

Note that 2) and 3) are typically combined as, mathematically, it’s not necessary to know the focal point explicitly. This is talked about in the next section.

The diagram below describes the model:

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